Montessori AMI Primary Guide
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Numbers through Ten
  Number Rods
  Sandpaper Numbers
  Number Rods and Cards
  Spindle Boxes
  Concept of Zero
  Cards and Counters
  Memory Game
Decimal System
  Introduction to quantity
  Formation of Numbers
  Stamp Game
  Dot Game
  Word Problems
Linear & Skip Counting
  Teens: Quanity
  Teens: Symbol
  Tens: Association
  Linear Counting
  Skip Counting
  Number Roll
Tables of Arithmetic
  Addition Snake Game
  Strip Board - exercises
  Addition Strip Board
  Addition Charts
  Substraction Snake Game
  Substraction Strip Board
  Substraction Charts
  Multiplication Bead
  Multiplication Board
  Multiplication Charts
  Unit Division Board
  Division Charts
Passage to Abstraction
  Small Bead Frame
  Wooden Hierarchical Material
  Large Bead Frame
  Racks and Tubes



- As for addition


Static Multiplication

  1. Invite three children to come and work with you.
  2. Have them set up the materials as for addition.
  3. Have each child take the same number with the cards, but do not tell them so. For example: 1223
  4. The presentation is exactly the same as in addition. Do not tell the children they have the same numbers until the end.
  5. Once you have found the total number of beads, collect each child’s small cards and place them as you had done in addition.
  6. Have the children notice that they had the same amount of beads.
  7. Tell them that in this case we only need one of the cards (give the two other children back their small cards) and because they each had the same amount of beads and there are 3 children (count them to show this), we can show this with a special 3 card.
  8. Place this special card to the right of the small card and the large number cards to the right of that.
  9. Say, “When we take 1223 three times, it equals 3669.
  10. “And you have just done multiplication!”










  12. Repeat a few times with the child.

Dynamic Multiplication
Same as with Dynamic Addition.


To give the impression of the nature of multiplication, that it is an addition in which the quantities added are not different, as in addition, but in fact are all alike.  

Control of Error
Initially the Directress, later the child’s own understanding. 

4 – 5 years

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