Montessori AMI Primary Guide
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Numbers through Ten
  Number Rods
  Sandpaper Numbers
  Number Rods and Cards
  Spindle Boxes
  Concept of Zero
  Cards and Counters
  Memory Game
Decimal System
  Introduction to quantity
  Formation of Numbers
  Stamp Game
  Dot Game
  Word Problems
Linear & Skip Counting
  Teens: Quanity
  Teens: Symbol
  Tens: Association
  Linear Counting
  Skip Counting
  Number Roll
Tables of Arithmetic
  Addition Snake Game
  Strip Board - exercises
  Addition Strip Board
  Addition Charts
  Substraction Snake Game
  Substraction Strip Board
  Substraction Charts
  Multiplication Bead
  Multiplication Board
  Multiplication Charts
  Unit Division Board
  Division Charts
Passage to Abstraction
  Small Bead Frame
  Wooden Hierarchical Material
  Large Bead Frame
  Racks and Tubes

Cards and Counters


- A series of cards with numbers from 1 to 10
- A box with 55 counters



  1. Invite a child to come work with you. Bring him over to the shelf and have him bring the material to the table.
  2. Open the box and place it on the lid.
  3. Show the different cards to the child and have him say the numbers out loud.
  4. Lay the cards on the table in front of the child.
  5. Have the child put the card written 1 to the left side of the table.
  6. Explain that you will need a little space between the cards.
  7. Ask the child to put the other cards to the right of the first card in numerical order.
  8. Tell the child that you are going to put the number of counters each card asks for under the corresponding card.
  9. Point to card 1 and ask the child how many counters should you place under this card.
  10. The child should answer 1.
  11. Take one counter out of the box and gently slide it (using your right index finger) under the card written 1.
  12. Have the child count the counter.
  13. Repeat for card 2 by placing the counters next to each other.
  14. Repeat for card 3 but place the last counter under and to the middle of the two counters. (See diangram below)


  15. Repeat until the child seems to understand.
  16. Have the child place the rest of the counters in a similar way as you have shown. Direct the child on how many counters and where he will place them through questions.
  17. Repeat until all of the counters have been placed.


  18. Tell the child that you are going see if you can run your fingers through the counters.
  19. Place your right index finger above the first counter (under card 1) and try to run it down the table through the counter.
  20. Stop before touching the counter and tell the child that you can not divide it. Move card 1 a little above where it was.


  21. Repeat for counters 2 and after you have run your finger through the two cunters, tell the child that you can divide it.
  22. Repeat for 3 and after, move the card a little higher to the level of card 1.
  23. Have the child repeat for the others. You or the child move the cards up for those numbers where you can’t run your fingers through.
  24. Once the child is finished, look at all of the cards that are slightly higher than the others (cards 1, 3, 5, 7, 9) and tell the child that these numbers are odd.
  25. Point to the other cards (cards 2, 4, 6, 8) and tell the child that these numbers are even.
  26. Do a Three Period Lesson for odd and even.



To reinforce the knowledge that each number is made up of separate quantities.
To verify whether the child has mastered:
- his sequence of numbers
- How many separate units go to form each number
To indicate the odd and even numbers

To prepare for the divisibility of numbers 

Control of Error
If the counting has been incorrect, at the end there will be either an insufficient number of counters or some left over. 

4 years – After work with the Spindle Boxes

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